1) Basic assumptions for determination of the location of the Temple in Jerusalem
2) Description of the viewpoint of Agrippa from the Hasmonean Palace, as recorded by Josephus Flavius
3) The various proposals for determining the location of the Hasmonean Palace, as recorded by Josephus Flavius
4) Evaluation of the alternative locations from which Agrippa could have observed the Azarah (Temple Court)
5) Determination of the location of the Temple based on a horizontal observation angle by Agrippa
6) Determination of the location of the Temple based on a vertical observation angle by Agrippa
Comments and Sources
List of Drawings
1. Basic assumptions for determination of the location of the Temple in Jerusalem
Many opinions have been expressed regarding the location of
the Temple. Some people have argued that the Holy of Holies was
in the Dome of the Rock (1) (see drawing
Others have claimed that the location of the Dome of the Rock corresponds to the location of the altar (2) (see drawing 2).
Some say that the Temple was located in the north (3) (see drawing 3).
Others have argued that the Temple was in the south (4) (see drawing 4).
Since it is impossible to carry out excavations in the site
itself, the researchers have attempted to find a reference point
from which they calculated the location of the Temple Mount and
Some people have argued that the rock in the Dome of the Rock is the location of the Holy of Holies.
Some believe that the rock in the Dome of the Rock is the location of the altar.
Some claim that the rock in the Dome of the Winds [spirits] is the location of the Holy of Holies.
Some assume that El Kas located between El-Aksa and the Dome of the Rock is the location of the Holy of Holies.
Others think that the walls of the area form the reference point for calculating the location of the Temple.
Unfortunately the above reference points do not correlate with other archeological findings regarding the area.
Those who argue that the Holy of Holies is located in the Dome of the Rock have to assume that the southern wall is outside the Temple Mount according to the Tractate Midot (see drawing 5) and that there is no gate in the eastern wall of the Temple Mount.
Those who claim that the southern wall is the wall of the Temple Mount find that part of the Dome of the Rock lies outside the area of the Temple Mount (see drawing 6).
Those who think that the Holy of Holies is in the Dome of the Winds find that the Temple Mount is located above a moat to the north of the Dome of the Winds (see drawing 7).
Those who argue that the Temple is located in the region of El Kas are forced to reach the conclusion that the walls of the area were not constructed by Herod but by Hadrian. (5)
Some people sought reference points outside the Temple Mount
area and examined the correlation between the physical and topographical
reality and the descriptions appearing in the literature.
For example, determination of the location of the place of burning the red heifer on the Mount of Olives, and examination of the angle of sight of the priest from this place in the direction of the Azarah and the Temple. (6)
Examination of the aqueduct coming from Solomon'a Pools and its levels, and of its correspondence with the descriptions in the literature. (7)
Examination of the angle of sight of Agrippa when he looked towards the Azarah from the Hashmonean Palace. (8)
In this article I wish to expand the discussion regarding the angle of sight of Agrippa.
2. Description of the viewpoint of Agrippa from the Hasmonean Palace, as recorded by Josephus Flavius
(189) About the same time King Agrippa built himself a very large dining room in the royal palace at Jerusalem, near to the portico (Xistus). (190) Now this palace had been erected of old by the children of Asamoneus and was situated upon an elevation, and afforded a most delightful view to those that had a mind to take a view of the city, which prospect was desired by the king; and there he could lie down, and eat, and from there observe what was done in the temple; (191) which thing, when the chief men of Jerusalem saw they were very much displeased at it; for it was not agreeable to the institutions of our country or law that what was done in the temple should be viewed by others, especially what belonged to the sacrifices. They therefore erected a wall upon the uppermost building which belonged to the inner court of the temple towards the west, (192) which wall when it was built, did not only intercept the prospect of the dining room in the palace, but also of the western cloisters that belonged to the outer court of the temple also, where it was that the Romans kept guards for the temple at the festivals. (193) At these doings both King Agrippa, and mainly Festus the procurator, were much displeased; and Festus ordered them to pull the wall down again: but the Jews petitioned him to give them leave to send a delegation about this mater to Nero; for they said they could not endure to live if any part of the temple should be demolished; (194) and when Festus had given them leave so to do, they sent ten of their principal men to Nero, as also Ismael the high priest, and Helcias, the keeper of the sacred treasure. (195) And when Nero had heard what they had to say, he not only forgave6 them what they had already done, but also gave them leave to let the wall they had built stand. This was granted them in order to gratify Poppea, Nero's wife, who was a religious woman. (Antiquities 20, 8, 11) (9)
Agrippa II was the great-grandson of Herod the Great, and ruled
in The Bashan. He and his sister, Bernice, were involved in events
in Jerusalem during the period of the Great Revolt, and attempted
to minimize the confrontations between the Jews and the Romans.
Examination of the reliability of the story
1. Josephus describes an event that occurred in his time. The story does not describe events that took place in the distant past. It is likely that he witnessed some of the events and it is therefore possible to rely on his evidence.
2. The events took place in Israel and in Rome. When Josephus published his books in Rome there were people who could confirm the incident regarding an important delegation coming to Rome in connection with the addition of a wall in the Temple in far-off Jerusalem. It is therefore reasonable to assume that the story is authentic.
3. The fact that the names are given of the heads of the Jewish delegation who traveled to Rome strengthens the reliability of the story.
4. The support given by Nero's wife to the Jewish people and to its leaders is characteristic of the feminine elite in Rome, and references to it may be found in the Midrash literature. (10)
3. The various proposals for determining the location of the Hasmonean Palace, as recorded by Josephus Flavius
No remains have been found of the Hasmonean Palace in archeological
excavations. Researchers have attempted to determine the location
of the Hasmonean Palace based on sources in the literature. Some
people have located the palace near the junction of Misgav Ladach
St. and Shonei Halachot St. (Dan Bahat) (see drawing
8). (11) Some claim that the Hasmonean Palace is the Beit
Hamidot discovered in the southern part of the Jewish Quarter
(see drawing 9). (12)
According to the sources in the literature it is possible to specify an area in which it may be assumed that the Hasmonean Palace was located.
The gates of the western Temple Mount wall, the bridge that connected the Temple to the upper city, the towers of Yohanan and Shimon, the Council Building (the Bulterion), the portico (Xistus), and the Hasmonean Palace are physical elements that were close to one another and close to the northern wall of the upper city.
In the passage quoted above it is stated that:
About the same time King Agrippa built himself a very large dining room in the royal palace at Jerusalem, near to the portico (Xistus). Now this palace had been erected of old by the children of Asamoneus and was situated upon an elevation, and afforded a most delightful view to those that had a mind to take a view of the city, which prospect was desired by the king... (Antiquities 20, 8, 11)
Josephus describes the wall of Jerusalem in the following way:
Now that wall began on the north, at the tower called "Hippicus", and extended as far as the "Xistus", a place so called, and then, joining to the council-house, ended at the west passage of the temple. (The Jewish War, 5,4,2 (13) (see drawing 10a)
In the Pompean War he describes the struggle between the Hasmonean brothers:
A rebellion arose among the people within the city; Aristobulus's party being willing to fight, and to set their king at liberty, while the party of Hyrcanus were for opening the gates to Pompey; and the dread people were in occasioned these last to be a very numerous party, when they looked upon the excellent order the Roman soldiers were in. (143) So Aristobulus's party was defeated, and retired into the temple, and cut off the communication between the temple and the city, by breaking down the bridge that joined them together, and prepared to make an opposition to the utmost; but as the others had received the Romans into the city, and had delivered up the palace to him... (The Jewish War, 1,7,2) (See drawing 10b.)
At the beginning of the revolt Agrippa tried to pacify the mob in the Hewn Stone Chamber near the Hasmonean Castle.
But Agrippa, although he thought it too dangerous a thing for them to appoint men to go as the accusers of Florus, yet did he not think it fit for him to overlook them, as they were in a disposition for war. (344) He therefore called the multitude together into a large gallery, and placed his sister Bernice in the house of the Asamoneans, that she might be seen by them, (which house was over the gallery (Xistus), at the passage to the upper city, where the bridge joined the temple to the gallery (Xistus)... (The Jewish War, 2,16,3) (See drawing 10c.)
In the war between Shimon, who gained control of the upper city, and Johanan, who retreated to the Temple Mount, it is described that: Whereupon John, with his multitude of zealots, as being both prohibited from coming out of the temple, and having lost their power in the city, but having the advantage of situation, and having nonetheless erected four very large towers a forehand, that their darts might come from higher places, (581) one at the northeast corner of the court, one above the Xystus... (The Jewish War, 4,9,12) (See drawing 10d.)
In the battles after the capture of the Antonia Fortress by the Romans, Josephus gives the following description:
They (the rebellious) filled that part of the western passage which was between the beams, and the roof under them, with dry materials, as also with bitumen and pitch, and then retired from that place, as though they were tired with the pains they had taken; (179) at which procedure of theirs, many of the most inconsiderate among the Romans, who were carried away with violent passions, followed hard after them as they were retiring, and applied ladders to the passage, and got up to it suddenly; but the prudent part of them, when they understood this unaccountable retreat of the Jews, stood still where they were before. (180) However, the passage was full of those that were gone up the ladders; at which time the Jews set it all on fire; and as the flame burst out everywhere suddenly, the Romans that were out of the danger were seized with a very great dismay, as were those that were in the midst of the danger in the utmost distress. (181) So when they perceived themselves surrounded with the flames, some of them threw themselves down backwards into the city, and some among their enemies [in the temple]; Now this passage was burned down as far as John's tower, which he built in the war he made against Simon over the gates that led to the Xystus. (The Jewish War, 6,3,1) (See drawing 10e.)
After burning the Temple, negotiations were held between Titus, who was on the Temple Mount, and the Jews who were in the upper city.
2. (323) But as for the tyrants them selves, and those that were with them, when they found that they were encompassed on every side, and, as it were, walled round, without any method of escaping, they desired to treat with Titus by word of mouth. (324) Accordingly, such was the kindness of his nature, and his desire of preserving the city from destruction, joined to the advice of his friends, who now thought the robbers were come to a temper, that he placed himself on the western side of the outer [court of the] temple; (325) for there were gates on that side above the Xystus, and a bridge that connected the upper city to the temple. This bridge it was that lay between the tyrants and Caesar, (The Jewish War, 6,6,2) (See drawing 10f.)
Titus made plans for the attack on the upper city:
(376) The works that belonged to the four legions were erected on the west side of the city, near to the royal palace; (377) but the whole body of the auxiliary troops, with the rest of the multitude that were with them, [erected their banks] at the Xystus, thus they reached to the bridge, and that tower of Simon which he had built as a citadel for himself against John, when they were at war one with another. (The Jewish War, 6,8,1) (See drawing 10g.)
From these descriptions it is possible to understand the positioning
of the various functions from East to West:
Johanan's tower, the colonnades of the western wall of the Temple Mount, the wall of the Temple Mount, the gates of the Temple Mount, the bridge, Shimon's Tower, the Council Building, the Xistus the Hasmonean Palace, the Hippicus Tower. (See drawing 10h).
We can draw the conclusion that all the functions were inside the upper city to the south and next to the northern section of the first wall.
The route of the first wall to the north was in the area between two points: David's Tower in the west and Wilson's Arch in the west. From the topographic aspect the bridge was in a low place above the valley and the Hasmonean Palace was in a high place.|
In the light of the description of the conversations held between both sides of the bridge between Agrippa II and Titus, it may be assumed that the Xistus was not far from the bridge and from the Temple Mount gates, within hearing distance.
According to the description of the conversation between Agrippa II and the people, it may be understood that the Hasmonean Palace was close to the Xistus.
The Hippicus Tower may be identified in the area currently occupied by David's Tower. Researchers think that Wilson's Arch preserves the route of the bridge that connected the Temple Mount to the upper city.
At the top of Shonei Halachot St., parallel to Hashalshelet St., remains have been found of a tower identified as the Hasmonean Tower. Further to the west, remains of a wall have been found (see drawing 11). (14)
In the light of that stated above it is proposed to identify the length of the zone in order to determine the location of the Xistus, and the Hasmonean Palace, to the east of Habad St., between Hashalshelet street and Shonei Halachot Street.
TheXistus is an external colonnade going southwards, in which athletes exercised in the winter. Its length, according to Vitrobius, and the restoration proposal of Paladio is about 110m.
Based on the principles of Roman design, the Xistus in Jerusalem stretched from east to west. Its northern wing was adjacent to the wall and the row of pillars continued to the south. It is possible that the building was called Xistus because of its shape, and was not used in Jerusalem for physical exercises but for meetings.
The Hasmonean Palace
The sources do not contain a description of the dimensions of the Hasmonean Palace in Jerusalem. Remains have been found in Jericho of a Hasmonean Palace, (see drawing 12) and for purposes of illustration we shall use the plan of the palace in Jericho. (16)
The Council Hall (Bolterion), located at the end of the colonnades, may be seen in the Council Hall in Ashkelon (17) (see drawing 13).
In drawing 14 it is possible to see a proposed construction of the buildings near the Hasmonean Palace, based on the sources and on archeological findings.
4. Evaluation of the alternative locations from which Agrippa could have observed the Azarah (Temple Court)
Agrippa viewed the work of sacrificing from the hall that he
built at the top of the Hasmonean Palace. Sacrifices were made
in several sites.
To the north of the altar the sacrifices were slaughtered in rings and brought to the low attachment pillars and the tables, where they were skinned and dismembered. The priests took the parts in a procession, went up to the ramp, and placed the parts on the pyre at the top of the altar.
The burning of the parts could not be seen since the Temple was one hundred cubits high and hid the view in the area of the western wall of the Azarah. The rings in which the sacrifices were slaughtered, could also not be seen because of the Temple. The only possible view was in the open area between the wall of the Ulam of the Temple and the wall of the Azarah to the north, and to the south. These open areas create narrow angles of sight in whose region the Hasmonean Palace may have been located (see drawing 15).
From the northern angle of sight it is possible to see the slaughter house in which the sacrifices were skinned and dismembered (see drawing 16).
From the southern angle it is possible to see the lower part of the altar ramp on which the priests placed the parts prior to ascending to the altar (see drawing 17).
5. Determination of the location of the Temple based on a horizontal observation angle by Agrippa
If we assume that the Temple was located at the Dome of the
Winds this implies that the Hasmonean Palace, in accordance with
the angles of sight, was located to the north of the first wall,
contrary to the assumption of all the researchers (see
Even if we assume that the Temple was located on the Dome of the Rock, this implies that the Hasmonean Palace, in accordance with the angle of sight, was located to the north of the first wall, contrary to the assumption that the Palace was south of the wall, and contrary to evidence in the literature (see drawing 19).
If we assume that the Hasmonean Palace was in the region of the Herodian Quarter in Beit Hamidot, based on a suggestion made by one of the archeologists, this implies that the Temple lay outside the region known as the Temple Mount, in the region of the Beit Omaia palaces. This is contrary to all the methods (see drawing 20).
However, if we assume that the Temple was in the region of El Kas, in the area between the Dome of the Rock and the El-Aksa mosque, we see that in the region of the two angles of sight there is located the Hasmonean Palace, whose location we estimated above, based on the sources in the literature and archeological remains (see drawing 21).
In other words, if the Hasmonean Palace was located in the region of Hashalshelet and Shonei Halachot Streets, the Temple was located in the region of El Kas, and Agrippa saw from the hall in the Hasmonean Palace the slaughter house and the foot of the ramp.
It is impossible to argue simultaneously that the Holy of Holies or the altar were in the Dome of the Rock and that the Hasmonean Palace was south of the northern wall of the upper city, i.e. to the south of Hashalshelet Street.
It is impossible to claim that Beit Hamidot is the Hasmonean Palace and also to determine that the Temple lay on the Dome of the Rock.
Those researchers who assume that Hasmonean Palace was located at the end of Misgav Ladach Street (Dan Bahat), must also assume that the Temple was located in the region of El Kas.
Only the combination of the location of the Temple in El Kas and the Hasmonean Palace at the top of Shonei Halachot Street produces full correlation between the archeological findings and the description of Josephus.
6. Determination of the location of the Temple based on a vertical observation angle by Agrippa
Even without precise information regarding the Hasmonean Palace
it is possible to learn using vertical sections that the wall
of the western Azarah conceals the view from the western
city even without the aad of a wall, if we assume that the Holy
of Holies was located in the Dome of the Rock.
In order to see what was happening in the Azarah it is necessary to have a building of height between 33 and 75m. Even from the highest towers in Jerusalem at the period of the Second Temple - the Phasael and Hippicus towers of height 70-90 cubits (35-45 m) - it was impossible to see into the Azarah (see drawing 22).
If we assume that the Holy of Holies was in the Dome of the Rock, level of the Azarah +740, then at a distance of 300m ground level is +742. Agrippa would have to look from a height of 55m above ground level, and the height of the building was about 120 cubits (see drawing 23).
There were no buildings of such a height in Jerusalem at the time of the Second Temple. It cannot be assumed that a person would climb every day to such a height in a building intended for residential purposes and entertaining guests, without mechanical facilities such as escalators or elevators that did not exist at that time.
However, if we assume that the Holy of Holies was located in the region of El Kas at a low level, the level of the Azarah is +727.4 (18) and the location of the Hasmonean tower is the location of the Hasmonean Palace at level +756 (at a distance of 300m from El Kas), then the height of the Hasmonean Palace from which Agrippa looked was about 21m only (see drawing 24).
In order to permit Agrippa to look inside the Azarah from a reasonable height, the level of the Temple must be lowered, and this can be done only in the area of El Kas, between the El-Aksa mosque and the Dome of the Rock.
Both Agrippa's horizontal and vertical angles of sight prove
that it is impossible to locate the Holy of Holies or the altar
in the region of the Dome of the Rock, and certainly not to locate
the Temple in the Dome of the Winds [spirits].
From analysis of Agrippa's angle of sight it can be assumed that the Holy of Holies was located in the region of El Kas between the Dome of the Rock and El-Aksa mosque.
These proofs fit the additional proofs expressed in the article The Temple is located in the south published in Tehumin, 14.
Based on these proofs it may be assumed that the Temple was in fact located in the region of El Kas, between the El-Aksa mosque and the Dome of the Rock, at a level 16m lower than the level of the current plaza.
It is currently impossible to excavate in the Temple Mount area, for both religious and political reasons. The conclusions of this research indicate that it is not necessary to excavate in the Temple Mount, but in the region between Hashalshelet Street and the upper part of Shonei Halachot Street, near the Hasmonean tower. (It is possible that the tower is part of the Hasmonean Palace complex.)
If remains are found of the Hasmonean Temple in this region, this will prove without doubt that the Holy of Holies is located between the Dome of the Rock and the El-Aksa mosque.
The mystery surrounding the location of the Hasmonean Palace and of the Holy of Holies up to now involved two unrelated unknowns.
In the light of this research the Hasmonean Palace and the Holy of Holies have become a single unknown related by the angle of sight of Agrippa. The equation now contains a single unknown. The solution of the equation poses a challenge to archeologists: To locate the Holy of Holies in the Temple Mount by excavating outside The Temple Mount.
Comments and Sources
1. The central method
Y. Yadin, The First Temple, Jerusalem 5715, pp. 176-190
Avi Yona, the Temple, Jerusalem 5716, pp. 397-415
Rabbi Tikochinsky, The Holy City and the Temple, Jerusalem 5729, pp. 11-15
Rabbi Zalman Koren, The Courts of the Lord's House, Jerusalem 5737, pp. 301-306
2. The main method
G. Dilman, Etz Haim Yeshiva Yearbook, Jerusalem, 5673
C. Schich, Der Temple in Jerusalem, 1890
3. The northern method
A. Kaufman, The Second Temple, its shape and location, The Temple Mount, its location and boundaries, lectures given during two study days, Nisan 22-23, 5735, Jerusalem 5735, pp. 39-46
4. The southern method
M. Brauer, The foundation stone, or the depository stone, Jerusalem 5670
Y. Rofeh, The location of our Temple, location of the Temple in the southern part of the Temple Mount plaza, 5738
J. Ferguson, The Temple of the Jews and other buildings in the haram area of Jerusalem, London, 1878
Tuvia Sagiv, The Temple is located in the south, Tehumin, 14, 5754, p. 438 et seq.
Dan Bahat, The background to the various methods, a drawing of the Temple Mount area, a selection of plans and historic sites, Jerusalem, 5741, 1980, p. 42
5. See Tuvia Sagiv, Pagan shrines on Mount Moriah, 5753 (unpublished)
6. Prof. A. Kaufman tried to locate the place of burning the red heifer on the Mount of Olives and to create a line of sight from the Mount of Olives to the Gate of Mercy. See comment 3.
7. The levels of the aqueduct see T. Sagiv, The Temple is located to the South, Tehumin, 14, 5754, p. 441
8. Agrippa's view. See ibid, p. 442.
9. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities. Translated by Avraham
Shalit, Jerusalem 5723 (hereinafter, "Antiquities")
The new complete works of Josephus Translated by William Whiston 1999.
10. Roman matrons who take interest in and support the Jewish People and its culture
11. D. Bahat, The location of the Hasmonean Palace is close to the junction of Misgav Ladach Street and Hashalshelet Street, Large Carta Atlas for the history of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 1989, p. 36
12. M. Ben Dov, Carta Jerusalem Atlas in the mirror of generations, Jerusalem, 1991, p. 65
13. Josephus Flavius, History of the war between the Jews and the Romans, translated by Y.N. Simhoni, Tel Aviv, 5719
14. Remains of the Hasmonean Tower in the upper city, the new encyclopedia for archeological excavations in Eretz Israel, Jerusalem 1992, pp: 640, 648, 634
15. The Hewn Stone Chamber . XISTUS. This was one of the
elements that created the gymnasium, the Greek training center.
It was a colonnade facing south. The back of the colonnade facing
north was next to the wall. The place served as a covered race
track for athletes. Vitrobius, About Architecture, translated
by Prof. Roni Reich, Tel Aviv, 1997, volume 5, chapter 11
A. A. Pladio, Four books about architecture. Translated by Roni Reich, Tel Aviv: 5760, pp. 221-222
16. The twin Hasmonean Palace in Jericho, the new Encyclopedia,
pp. 743, 744
Ehud Netzer: Hasmonean Palaces and Herod the Great, Jerusalem, 1999, pp. 22-28
17. Bolterion (the Council House) A Bolkerion has been found in Ashkelon, having a rectangular courtyard, surrounded by covered colonnades. The encyclopedia for archeological excavations in Eretz Israel, Jerusalem, 5731, p. 23. It is likely that there was a similar set-up in Jerusalem that included a Bolterion and a covered colonnade (Hewn Stone Chamber). The New Encyclopedia for archeological excavations, p. 106, suggests that the Bolterion should be identified as a small forum.
18. For the levels of the courts, based on the various methods,
see: T. Sagiv, The Temple is located in the south, Tehumin,
14, pp. 465-470
List of drawings (with links)
1) The central method: The Holy of Holies in the Dome of the Rock
2) The main method: The location of the altar in the Dome of the Rock
3) The northern method: The Temple is located in the Dome of the Winds
4) The southern method: The region of El Kas is the location of the Holy of Holies
5) If the Holy of Holies is located in the Dome of the Rock, then the southern wall is not part of the Temple Mount.
6) If the southern wall is the wall of the Temple Mount and the rock is the Holy of Holies then part of the Azarah lies outside the Temple Mount.
7) If the Temple is located in the Dome of the Winds then the Temple Mount is located inside an excavation.
8) A theory about the location of the Hasmonean Palace in the region of the junction of Misgav Ladach Street and Shonei Halachot Street
9) A theory about the location of the Hasmonean Palace in Beit Hamidot in the Herodian quarter
10) A schematic location of the functions near the first wall in the north, based on the descriptions of Josephus Flavius
11) Remains of a Hasmonean Tower and of a wall in the upper part of Shonei Halachot Street
12) The Hasmonean Palace in Jericho
13) The Bolterion Hall and its continuation in the colonnade and the incense court Ashkelon
14) Proposal for location of the various functions that were near the first wall in the north, on the background of the map of the city and the excavations
15) In order to see what is happening in the Azarah, the Hasmonean Palace must be located within the range of horizontal angles of sight.
16) A view towards the Azarah from the model of the second Temple in the Holyland Hotel. The tables in the slaughter house can be seen.
17) The altar ramp observed from the southern angle.
18) If we assume that the Temple was located in the Dome of the Winds, this implies that the Hasmonean Palace was located to the north of the first wall, contrary to the original evidence and the assumptions of the researchers.
19) If we assume that the Temple was located in the Dome of the Rock, this implies that the Hasmonean Palace was located to the north of the first wall, contrary to the original evidence and the assumptions of the researchers.
20) If we assume that the Hasmonean Palace was located in the region of the Herodian quarter, this implies that the Temple was located outside the area called the Temple Mount in the region of the Beit Omaia palaces, which is contrary to all the methods.
21) If we assume that the Temple was in the El Kas region, we find that in the range of the two angles there is located the Hasmonean Palace, whose location may be found based on the sources and the archeological findings.
22) From the Phasael and the Hippicus towers, it was not possible to see what was happening in the Azarah if we assume that the Temple was located in the region of the Dome of the Rock.
23) If we locate the Temple in the Dome of the Rock, Agrippa had to climb to a height of 55m in order to see what was happening in the Azarah. The height of the building would have to be about 120 cubits. There were no buildings of such a height in Jerusalem in the period of the Second Temple.
24) If we locate the Azarah in the region of El Kas, Agrippa could look at the Azarah from a height of 21m only.
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